Nanocrystalline VITROPERM®

State-of-the-art Ribbon with Outstanding Soft Magnetic Properties

VITROPERM® is an iron-based nanocrystalline material with an outstanding combination of soft-magnetic properties, making it the state-of-the-art material for a wide range of applications.

VITROPERM products are available as ribbon in thicknesses from 14 µm to 20 µm and widths from 2 mm to 66 mm.

Benefits:

  • High saturation flux density ≥ 1.2 T
  • Permeability can be adjusted in the range from 400 to 800,000
  • Excellent thermal stability over a wide temperature range
  • Low core losses and low coercivity
  • Low or zero saturation magnetostriction
  • Highest surface quality of all nanocrystalline materials

Details

Typical Applications vs. Magnetization Curve / Hysteresis Loop

R-type loop (round loop)

  • Annealing without magnetic field
  • VITROPERM 400 R, VITROPERM 800 R
  • Applications: differential current transformer for AC type RCDs, magnetic shielding

 

 

F-type loop (flat loop)

  • Annealing with transverse magnetic field
  • VITROPERM 220, VITROPERM 250, VITROPERM 270 F, VITROPERM 800 F
  • Applications: current transformers, common mode chokes
 

 

Z-type loop (rectangular loop)

  • Annealing with longitudinal magnetic field
  • VITROPERM 800 Z
  • Applications: magnetic amplifiers, spike blockers

 

 

Cores for low permeability
VITROPERM 220, VITROPERM 250, VITROPERM 270

  • Current transformers for electronic electricity meters / smart meters (smart grid)
  • Common mode chokes with high DC tolerance

Cores for high permeability
VITROPERM 500, VITROPERM 800

  • Common mode chokes (CMC’s) for EMI filters in renewable energy, electric drives and motors, EV-charging and automotive
  • Gate drive transformer and current transformers (CT’s) in electric drives and motors, EV-charging and automotive
  • Shielding material in wireless power transfer
  • Frequency range DC up to 13.56 MHz (subject to annealing and subsequent processing)
  • High saturation flux density Bs ≥ 1.2 T 
    • small cores or thin shielding material
  • High Curie temperature TC ≈ 600 °C 
    • high thermal stability
    • high service temperatures ≤120 °C
  • Low core losses at high frequencies due to
    • Low coercivity   HC ≈ 0.5 to 5 A/m
    • Low ribbon thickness  d ≈ 14 to 20 µm  
    • High electrical resistivity  ρ ≈ 1.15 µΩm
  • Small magnetostriction:  λs ≈ 0 to 11 ppm
  • Outstanding versatility:   
    • R-, F- or Z-type hysteresis loop and
    • wide permeability range µ ≈ 400 to 800,000

Chemical Composition

Alloy Fe Ni Co Cu Nb Si B Unit
VITROPERM 220 Bal. (66.4) 11.6 8.1 1.0 5.3 5.9 1.7 wt.-%
  Bal. (60.5) 10.1 7.0 0.8 2.9 10.7 8.0 at.-%
VITROPERM 250 Bal. (74.2) 11.6 - 1.0 5.3 6.2 1.7 wt.-%
  Bal. (67.2) 10.0 - 0.8 2.9 11.2 8.0 at.-%
VITROPERM 270 Bal. (79.7) 5.8 - 1.0 5.4 6.4 1.7 wt.-%
  Bal. (71.8) 5.0 - 0.8 2.9 11.5 8.0 at.-%
VITROPERM 400 Bal. (84.5) - - 1.8 5.2 7.6 1.7 wt.-%
  Bal. (75.2) - - 0.8 2.8 13.4 7.8 at.-%
VITROPERM 500/800 Bal. (82.8) - - 1.3 5.6 8.8 1.5 wt.-%
  Bal. (73.6) - - 1.0 3.0 15.1 6.9 at.-%

 

Various Vitroperm Grades available

VITROPERM 220, VITROPERM 250, VITROPERM 270

  • Alloys with small magnetostriction (6 to 11 ppm – subject to alloy)
  • Annealing with transverse magnetic field leads to flat hysteresis loop and low permeabilities (1,800 to 5,100 – subject to alloy)

VITROPERM 400

  • Alloy with very small magnetostriction (3 to 5 ppm) and high saturation flux density (1.3 T)
  • Annealing, typically without magnetic field, leads to round hysteresis loop and highest permeability µmax (< 800,000)

VITROPERM 500, VITROPERM 800

  • Zero-magnetostrictive by proper annealing
  • Extremely versatile (R-, Z- and F-loop achievable with proper annealing)
  • Lowest losses due to availability of low thickness down to 14 µm and zero magnetostriction
  • Widest range of adjustable permeabilities (typ. 20,000 to 200,000, with special processing 400 to 2,000)

 

Production Process of Nanocrystalline VITROPERM

VITROPERM is cast in a rapid solidification process to a fully amorphous and ductile ribbon.

In a subsequent annealing process with or without magnetic field it is transformed to the nanocrystalline state at temperatures typ. in the range of 480 to 580 °C.

The crystallites have a typical grain size of 10 nanometers and are embedded in the amorphous matrix.

Permeability µi vs. Saturation Flux Density Bs (F-Type Loop)

VITROPERM is equal or superior to ferrites, permalloys and amorphous materials based on cobalt.

Typical Applications vs. Magnetization Curve / Hysteresis Loop

R-type loop (round loop)

  • Annealing without magnetic field
  • VITROPERM 400 R, VITROPERM 800 R
  • Applications: differential current transformer for AC type RCDs, magnetic shielding

 

 

F-type loop (flat loop)

  • Annealing with transverse magnetic field
  • VITROPERM 220, VITROPERM 250, VITROPERM 270 F, VITROPERM 800 F
  • Applications: current transformers, common mode chokes
 

 

Z-type loop (rectangular loop)

  • Annealing with longitudinal magnetic field
  • VITROPERM 800 Z
  • Applications: magnetic amplifiers, spike blockers

 

 

Cores for low permeability
VITROPERM 220, VITROPERM 250, VITROPERM 270

  • Current transformers for electronic electricity meters / smart meters (smart grid)
  • Common mode chokes with high DC tolerance

Cores for high permeability
VITROPERM 500, VITROPERM 800

  • Common mode chokes (CMC’s) for EMI filters in renewable energy, electric drives and motors, EV-charging and automotive
  • Gate drive transformer and current transformers (CT’s) in electric drives and motors, EV-charging and automotive
  • Shielding material in wireless power transfer
  • Frequency range DC up to 13.56 MHz (subject to annealing and subsequent processing)
  • High saturation flux density Bs ≥ 1.2 T 
    • small cores or thin shielding material
  • High Curie temperature TC ≈ 600 °C 
    • high thermal stability
    • high service temperatures ≤120 °C
  • Low core losses at high frequencies due to
    • Low coercivity   HC ≈ 0.5 to 5 A/m
    • Low ribbon thickness  d ≈ 14 to 20 µm  
    • High electrical resistivity  ρ ≈ 1.15 µΩm
  • Small magnetostriction:  λs ≈ 0 to 11 ppm
  • Outstanding versatility:   
    • R-, F- or Z-type hysteresis loop and
    • wide permeability range µ ≈ 400 to 800,000

Chemical Composition

Alloy Fe Ni Co Cu Nb Si B Unit
VITROPERM 220 Bal. (66.4) 11.6 8.1 1.0 5.3 5.9 1.7 wt.-%
  Bal. (60.5) 10.1 7.0 0.8 2.9 10.7 8.0 at.-%
VITROPERM 250 Bal. (74.2) 11.6 - 1.0 5.3 6.2 1.7 wt.-%
  Bal. (67.2) 10.0 - 0.8 2.9 11.2 8.0 at.-%
VITROPERM 270 Bal. (79.7) 5.8 - 1.0 5.4 6.4 1.7 wt.-%
  Bal. (71.8) 5.0 - 0.8 2.9 11.5 8.0 at.-%
VITROPERM 400 Bal. (84.5) - - 1.8 5.2 7.6 1.7 wt.-%
  Bal. (75.2) - - 0.8 2.8 13.4 7.8 at.-%
VITROPERM 500/800 Bal. (82.8) - - 1.3 5.6 8.8 1.5 wt.-%
  Bal. (73.6) - - 1.0 3.0 15.1 6.9 at.-%

 

Various Vitroperm Grades available

VITROPERM 220, VITROPERM 250, VITROPERM 270

  • Alloys with small magnetostriction (6 to 11 ppm – subject to alloy)
  • Annealing with transverse magnetic field leads to flat hysteresis loop and low permeabilities (1,800 to 5,100 – subject to alloy)

VITROPERM 400

  • Alloy with very small magnetostriction (3 to 5 ppm) and high saturation flux density (1.3 T)
  • Annealing, typically without magnetic field, leads to round hysteresis loop and highest permeability µmax (< 800,000)

VITROPERM 500, VITROPERM 800

  • Zero-magnetostrictive by proper annealing
  • Extremely versatile (R-, Z- and F-loop achievable with proper annealing)
  • Lowest losses due to availability of low thickness down to 14 µm and zero magnetostriction
  • Widest range of adjustable permeabilities (typ. 20,000 to 200,000, with special processing 400 to 2,000)

 

Production Process of Nanocrystalline VITROPERM

VITROPERM is cast in a rapid solidification process to a fully amorphous and ductile ribbon.

In a subsequent annealing process with or without magnetic field it is transformed to the nanocrystalline state at temperatures typ. in the range of 480 to 580 °C.

The crystallites have a typical grain size of 10 nanometers and are embedded in the amorphous matrix.

Permeability µi vs. Saturation Flux Density Bs (F-Type Loop)

VITROPERM is equal or superior to ferrites, permalloys and amorphous materials based on cobalt.

Alloy Saturation
Polarisation
JS [T]
Permeability
µ
DC
Coercivity
HC [A/m]
Saturation
Magnetostriction
λS [ppm]
Losses
ρ [W/kg]
Curie
Temperature
TC [°C]
Condition
VITROPERM 220 1.24 1,800 - 2,400 <5 10 - 11 - 600 transverse field annealing / F annealed
VITROPERM 250 1.24 2,800 - 4,000 <3 8 - 9 - 600 transverse field annealing / F annealed
VITROPERM 270 1.21 4,700 - 5,100 <3 6 - 7 - 600 transverse field annealing / F annealed
VITROPERM 400 1.30 µ (0.2 A/m)
˜80,000
<1 3 - 5 ≤70
(@100 kHz,
0.2T)
600 annealing without field / R annealed
    µ (0.4 A/m)
>200,000
         
    µmax ˜500,000          
VITROPERM 500/800 1.24 20,000 - 200,000 <0.5 ˜0 (IλSI < 0.5) ≤80
(@100 kHz,
0.3 T, F)
600 transverse field annealing / F annealed
    µmax ˜600,000 <1   0.03 (@50 Hz,
1.0 T, R)
  annealing without field / R annealed
    400 - 2,000         stress annealed
    400 - 4,000         breaking after lamination / R annealed
Alloy Available Thickness
t [µm]
Mass Density
amorphous
ρ [g/cm3]
Mass Density
nanocrystalline
ρ [g/cm3]
Electrical
Resistivity
ρel [µΩm]
Coefficient of
Thermal Expansion
α [10-6/K]
Young's Modulus
E [GPa]
Hardness
[N/mm2]
Crystallization Temperature
TC [°C]
VITROPERM 220 20 ±3 7.42 7.62 1.15 8 150 1000 460
VITROPERM 250 20 ±3 7.35 7.55 1.15 8 150 1000 480
VITROPERM 270 18 ±3 7.30 7.50 1.15 8 150 1000 480
VITROPERM 400 18 ±3 7.20 7.39 1.15 8 150 1000 495
VITROPERM 500/800 18 ±3 7.17 7.35 1.15 8 150 1000 510
  17 ±2              
  16 ±2              
  14 ±2              
Alloy Saturation
Polarisation
JS [T]
Permeability
µ
DC
Coercivity
HC [A/m]
Saturation
Magnetostriction
λS [ppm]
Losses
ρ [W/kg]
Curie
Temperature
TC [°C]
Condition
VITROPERM 220 1.24 1,800 - 2,400 <5 10 - 11 - 600 transverse field annealing / F annealed
VITROPERM 250 1.24 2,800 - 4,000 <3 8 - 9 - 600 transverse field annealing / F annealed
VITROPERM 270 1.21 4,700 - 5,100 <3 6 - 7 - 600 transverse field annealing / F annealed
VITROPERM 400 1.30 µ (0.2 A/m)
˜80,000
<1 3 - 5 ≤70
(@100 kHz,
0.2T)
600 annealing without field / R annealed
    µ (0.4 A/m)
>200,000
         
    µmax ˜500,000          
VITROPERM 500/800 1.24 20,000 - 200,000 <0.5 ˜0 (IλSI < 0.5) ≤80
(@100 kHz,
0.3 T, F)
600 transverse field annealing / F annealed
    µmax ˜600,000 <1   0.03 (@50 Hz,
1.0 T, R)
  annealing without field / R annealed
    400 - 2,000         stress annealed
    400 - 4,000         breaking after lamination / R annealed
Alloy Available Thickness
t [µm]
Mass Density
amorphous
ρ [g/cm3]
Mass Density
nanocrystalline
ρ [g/cm3]
Electrical
Resistivity
ρel [µΩm]
Coefficient of
Thermal Expansion
α [10-6/K]
Young's Modulus
E [GPa]
Hardness
[N/mm2]
Crystallization Temperature
TC [°C]
VITROPERM 220 20 ±3 7.42 7.62 1.15 8 150 1000 460
VITROPERM 250 20 ±3 7.35 7.55 1.15 8 150 1000 480
VITROPERM 270 18 ±3 7.30 7.50 1.15 8 150 1000 480
VITROPERM 400 18 ±3 7.20 7.39 1.15 8 150 1000 495
VITROPERM 500/800 18 ±3 7.17 7.35 1.15 8 150 1000 510
  17 ±2              
  16 ±2              
  14 ±2              

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